Early German and Czech settlers in this area of Lavaca County attended Catholic worship services in private homes or at churches in Hallettsville or Moulton until 1890, when a new mission was established in Shiner by the Rev. John Anthony Forest. The new congregation was named for 9th-century Greek Missionaries Cyril and Methodius, who converted Slovakian-Moravian central Europeans to Christianity.
The members acquired two acres of land at this site in 1891, and a frame sanctuary was completed in May of that year. In February 1892 a tornado caused extensive damage to the original church structure, but it was rebuilt on a larger scale.
Designated a parish in 1912, the growing congregation soon needed larger facilities. This structure, designed by F. Wahrenburger, was built in 1920-21 by volunteer laborers led by the Rev. F. X. Wolf. An outstanding example of the Romanesque revival style of architecture, it features stained glass windows imported from Munich, Germany; cut stone detailing in the pinnacles and buttresses; an arcaded front portico; and a soaring, square tower with octagonal spire. Listed in the National Register of Historic places since 1983, it also features a magnificent painted interior.