According to local oral tradition, Baptists in Hallettsville began worshiping together about 1851. A congregation of fourteen people was in operation by 1854. Early worship services were conducted in a three-story building which served the community as a school, Union Church, and Masonic lodge.
The church's membership grew steadily, and in March 1882 the deacons purchased land in this block for a sanctuary. A frame structure was completed in 1884. It continued to serve the congregation until the early 1940s, when it was moved to another site on the property to make room for a new brick building, which was completed in 1948. Beginning in 1962, plans were again made to enlarge the church facilities. The 1884 church building was incorporated into the design for the new structure, and it remains in place under the modern brick construction.
Throughout its history, the First Baptist Church has served the community with a variety of worship, educational, and outreach programs. Members of the church have maintained an involvement in both foreign and domestic missionary activities. The church continues to play an important role in the civic affairs of Hallettsville and Lavaca County.