Founded in 1754 for the Cujane Indians. Capt. Manuel Ramirez de la Piszina, commander of nearby Presidio la Bahía, named this mission for his parish church in Spain, and Fray Juan Dios Camberos ministered to the first converts here. The Indians were taught crop-raising. In the years following, much livestock, including 30,000 head of cattle, belonged to Rosario. But these, along with Indian land at the mission, had to be surrendered later to the Spanish crown. In 1807 Rosario was permanently abandoned and its lands were distributed to Spanish settlers.
The 4.8-acre tract four miles west of Goliad on U.S. Highway 59, was donated to the state in 1935 by William J. O'Connor. Since taking ownership of the site in 1971, Texas Parks and Wildlife has carefully limited visitation to protect the site's archeological resources. Currently, the site may only be visited by appointment with park staff at Goliad SHP.