The citizens of Victoria voted to establish an Independent School District in an 1898 election. Immediate plans called for the building of eight schools: four for Anglos and four for African Americans. In 1901 school trustees hired prominent local architect Jules Leffland to design two buildings,and this site was acquired for the first Anglo high school. Named Central High School, it was completed in 1902.
After secondary school students were reassigned to the new Patti Welder High School in 1918, the school at this site was renamed Third Ward School and served elementary grades. The name was changed again in 1922 to honor J. D. Mitchell (1848-1922), one of the school district's first trustees and a former city council member and state legislator.
Leffland's imposing 3-story school building suffered major damage due to fires in 1935 and 1943, resulting in the removal of the third floor. Additional alterations occurred over the years to meet the changing needs of the facility. Although no longer in use as an elementary school, Mitchell School continues to serve as an educational center, housing classes of the Mitchell Guidance Center.