Constructed of locally quarried red sandstone, the Old Rock Schoolhouse was built in 1874 with funds pledged by citizens of Pleasanton. Once completed, the building was deeded to the county for free public school purposes. In addition to its educational function, the schoolhouse also served as a place of worship for the First Baptist Church from 1875 to 1883.
A storm cellar in the school yard served as a sanctuary against Comanche Indian raids on many occasions. Children attended classes six months of the year at no charge, but paid tuition for the remaining three months of the term. The Pleasanton Normal School, a training institute for teachers, operated in the schoolhouse during the summer months.
After the city built a new public school on Main Street about 1913, the Old Rock Schoolhouse was closed. It later served as a store, a private residence, and an apartment building. Purchased by the First Baptist Church in 1986, it later was renovated to serve once again as an educational facility. Known for many years to local residents as the "Red Rock Schoolhouse," its original sandstone exterior was concealed under a coat of plaster and paint. (1991)